Understanding basic Linux security for beginners

by Pete
Published: Updated: 8 minutes read

Linux security can seem daunting for beginners, but there are a few basic concepts that can help you understand the essentials. (This actually goes for any system, to be honest).

Let’s get into it

Overall, Linux security is a complex topic that requires ongoing attention and expertise. However, by understanding these basic concepts and implementing best practices, you can significantly improve the security of your Linux system.

User accounts and permissions

Linux uses a role-based access control (RBAC) system to determine what users can and cannot do on the system. Every user on the system has an associated username and password, and the system administrator can create different user accounts with different levels of access. Permissions are assigned to files and directories and determine what actions users can perform on those resources.

For example, the following command can be used to display the permissions for a specific file:

ls -l /path/to/file

The output of this command will show the permissions for the file, which are represented by a series of letters and symbols. The first character in the output indicates the file type (e.g. “d” for directory or “-” for a regular file), while the next three characters represent the file owner’s permissions, the following three represent the permissions for members of the file’s group, and the final three represent permissions for all other users.


A firewall is a security tool that can be used to control access to a network or system. Linux has several firewall options, including iptables and ufw. iptables is a command-line tool that allows you to define firewall rules and policies, while ufw provides a simpler interface for configuring the firewall.

For example, the following command can be used to allow incoming SSH traffic (port 22) using ufw:

sudo ufw allow ssh

This command will add a rule to the firewall that allows incoming SSH traffic. You can also use the same command to allow other types of traffic, such as HTTP (port 80) or HTTPS (port 443).

Updates and patches

Keeping your Linux system up to date with the latest security patches is essential for maintaining security. You can use your system’s package manager to install updates and patches as they become available. For example, on a Debian-based system like Ubuntu, you can use the following command to update the system’s package list and install any available updates:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

This command will update the system’s package list and install any available updates. You should run this command regularly to ensure that your system is always up to date with the latest security patches.


Encryption is the process of encoding data so that it can only be read by authorized parties. Linux provides several options for encryption, including full-disk encryption with tools like dm-crypt and LUKS, as well as file-level encryption with tools like GnuPG and OpenSSL.

For example, you can use the following command to create an encrypted file using OpenSSL:

openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -in plaintext.txt -out ciphertext.enc

This command will encrypt the file “plaintext.txt” using the AES-256-CBC encryption algorithm and write the encrypted data to the file “ciphertext.enc”.

Auditing and logging

Linux provides powerful tools for auditing and logging system activity. These tools can help you track user activity and detect unauthorized access or other security incidents. Tools like auditd and syslog-ng can be used to collect and analyze system logs.

For example, you can use the following command to view the system log on a Linux system:

tail -f /var/log/syslog

This command will display the last few lines of the system log and then continuously monitor the log for new entries as they are added.

Root Access

Root access, also known as superuser access, gives a user complete control over the Linux system. It’s important to limit root access to only trusted users and use it only when necessary. This is because any actions taken with root access have the potential to affect the entire system and its data, and mistakes can cause irreversible damage.


There are different backup strategies that can be used in Linux, such as full backups, incremental backups, and differential backups. The choice of backup strategy depends on factors such as the size of the data, the frequency of changes, and the available storage space.

Anti-virus and anti-malware software

While Linux is generally considered to be less prone to viruses and malware compared to other operating systems like Windows, it’s still important to install and use anti-virus and anti-malware software on Linux systems.

Malware and viruses can still infect Linux systems, especially if they are exposed to the internet or used to access files or services from other systems. Anti-virus and anti-malware software can help to detect and remove malicious software, protecting the system and its data.

In Summary

By following these Linux security basics, you can help protect your system and data from security threats. Creating unique user accounts, using file permissions, and configuring a firewall are all important steps to control access to your system and data. Regularly updating and patching your system is also crucial to address security vulnerabilities.

Linux Security Basics for Beginners:

  • Create unique user accounts with strong passwords.
  • Use file permissions to control access.
  • Configure a firewall to control network traffic.
  • Regularly update and patch the operating system and software.
  • Use encryption to protect data.
  • Log and monitor system activity.
  • Limit root access to trusted users.
  • Install and use anti-virus and anti-malware software.
  • Regularly backup important data.
  • Test backups to ensure data can be restored.
  • Have a disaster recovery plan in place.
  • Use best practices for protecting against malware.

Encryption can help protect sensitive data, while logging and monitoring can help detect and respond to security incidents. Limiting root access and installing anti-virus and anti-malware software can further enhance security.

Regular backups and a disaster recovery plan can help ensure business continuity in the event of a security incident or hardware failure. Finally, using best practices for protecting against malware can help minimize the risk of infection.